A theology symposium presented on October 4, 2023 by Northwest, ACTS, and the J.H. Pickford Chair in Theology.

Presenter: Dr. Holly Faith Nelson

Respondent: Dr. Michael Morelli

Moderator: Dr. Katharine Bubel


Selected Sources Cited in the Keynote Lecture


  • David Lyle Jeffrey, People of the Book: Christian Identity and Literary Culture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996).
  • Lawrence D. Kritzman, “Barthesian Free Play.” Yale French Studies, no. 66 (1984): 189–210 (190). https://doi.org/10.2307/2929870.
  • Charles Gore, quoted in Alistair E. McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction, 5th ed. (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011), 235.
  • Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, trans. J.F. Shaw (Mineola: Dover Philosophical Publications, 2009), I, 4. See Robert A. Ziegler’s article, “Augustine of Hippo’s Doctrine of Scripture: Christian Exegesis in Late Antiquity,” Primary Source, vol. 5, no. 2 (2015), 33-39.
  • Hanjo Berressem, “Postmodernism,” in the Handbook of the American Novel of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries, ed. Timo Müller (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2017), 43. See Margaret Rose, Parody: Ancient, Modern and Postmodern (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
  • Martin Heidegger, “The Question Concerning Technology,” in Martin Heidegger: Basic Writings, ed. David Farell Krell (New York: Harper & Row, 1977), 287-317. Heidegger: Technology, Truth and Language (M.A. Thesis, University of Pretoria, 2001), 118, https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/30416/Complete.pdf?sequence=10&isAllowed=y.
  • Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London and New York: Routledge, 1982).
  • Ivan Illich and Barry Sanders, ABC: The Alphabetization of the Popular Mind (New York: Vintage Books, 1988), 44, xi, 107
  • Jacques Ellul, The Technological Society (New York: Vintage, 1964), 325.
  • James Fowler, “A Synopsis and Analysis of the Thought and Writings of Jacques Ellul,” 2000, www.christinyou.com/pages/ellul.html.
  • Edward Felsenthal, “Interview with OpenAI CEO Sam Altman, Time, June 21, 2003, https://time.com/6288584/openai-sam-altman-full-interview/.
  • Jakob Nielsen, “ChatGPT Lifts Business Professionals’ Productivity and Improves Work Quality,” Nielsen Norman Group, April 2, 2023,
  • John Piper, Reading the Bible Supernaturally: Seeing and Savoring the Glory of God in Scripture (Wheaton: Crossway, 2017), n.p.
  • Morgan Lee (comp.), “Christians Are Asking ChatGPT About God. Is This Different from Googling,” Christianity Today, May 26, 2023,
  • Bob Doede, “Transhumanism, Technology, and the Future,” The Appraisal Journal, vol. 7, no. 3 (2009), 39-54 (39, 54).
  • Marc Cortez, quoted in Joshua R. Farris, “A Substantive (Soul) Model of the Imago Dei,” The Ashgate Research Companion to Theological Anthropology, ed. Joshua R. Farris and Charles Taliaferro [Aldershot: Ashgate, 2015], 167).
  • Karen Swallow Prior, The Evangelical Imagination: How Stories, Images & Metaphors Created a Culture in Crisis (Ada, MI: Brazos Press, 2023), 9.
  • J.R.R. Tolkien, “On Fairy Stories,” in The Monsters and the Critics and Other Essays, ed. Christopher Tolkien (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1984). This work first appeared in Tolkien’s Andrew Lang lecture in 1939.
  • Yuval Noah Harari, Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow (London: Signal, 2015), 411.
  • Richard Kearney, “The Wager of Carnal Hermeneutics,” in Carnal Hermeneutics, ed. Richard Kearney and Brian Treanor [New York: Fordham University, Press, 2015]; Jens Zimmermann, “Guarding Our Humanity: Gadamar, Ricoeur, and the Future of Philosophical Hermeneutics,” Analecta Hermeneutica, vol. 13 (2021): 15-31.
  • Michael Robbins “ChatGPT and the Human Mind: How Do They Compare?” The New York Times, March 15, 2023,
  • https://www.nytimes.com/2023/03/15/opinion/letters/chatgpt-brain-noam-chomsky.html.
  • Noam Chomsky, “The False Promise of ChatGPT,” The New York Times, March 8, 2023, https://www.nytimes.com/2023/03/08/opinion/noam-chomsky-chatgpt-ai.html.
  • C.S. Lewis, An Experiment in Criticism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1961), 141.
  • Frank Kermode, The Genesis of Secrecy: On the Interpretation of Narrative (Cambridge,  MA: Harvard University Press, 1979). Karen Swallow Prior, “How Reading Makes Us More Human,” The Atlantic, June 21, 2013, https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/06/how-reading-makes-us-more-human/277079/. See also,
  • Jeremy Weissman, “ChatGPT Is a Plague Upon Education,” Inside Higher Ed, February 8, 2023, https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2023/02/09/chatgpt-plague-upon-education-opinion.
  • Steve Talbott, Devices of the Soul: Battling for Our Selves in an Age of Machines (Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media, 2007), vii, ix.
  • Andrew, Stanton et al., WALL-E. Burbank, Calif., Walt Disney Home Entertainment, 2008.
  • Michael D. Langford, “A Theological Framework for Reflection on Artificial Intelligence,” in AI, Faith, and the Future: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Michael J. Paulus Jr, and Michael D. Langford (Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2002), n.p.
  • Michael D. Langford: “Artificial Intelligence and Theological Personhood,” in AI, Faith, and the Future: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Paulus Jr and Langford, n.p.
  • David Cayley, Ivan Illich in Conversation (1992; Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2007), 171 (in the section entitled “The Last Frontier of Arrogance”).
  • Marilyn Chandler McEntyre, Caring for Words in a Culture of Lies (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009), 3.
  • C.S. Lewis, The Abolition of Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1943).
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